Accounting Principles and Practices: An Introduction

Accounting is the language of business. It is a process of recording, classifying, and summarizing financial transactions to provide relevant information to stakeholders. In this article, we will discuss the basics of accounting principles and practices.

2020 Accounting Preview

The Accounting Equation

The accounting equation is the foundation of accounting. It states that assets equal liabilities plus equity. This means that everything a company owns (assets) must be equal to what it owes (liabilities) plus what the owners have invested (equity).

Double-Entry Accounting

Double-entry accounting is a system of accounting that requires every transaction to have two equal and opposite entries in the accounting records. This system ensures that the accounting equation is always in balance.

Accrual Accounting

Accrual accounting is a method of accounting that records transactions as they occur, rather than when the cash changes hands. This means that revenue and expenses are recognized when they are earned or incurred, regardless of when payment is received or made.

The Chart of Accounts

The chart of accounts is a list of all the accounts used in the accounting system. It is used to organize and classify financial transactions, making it easier to record and analyze financial data.

Accounting Considerations for 2020 Year-End Reporting

Financial Statements

Financial statements are reports that provide information about an organization’s financial performance. The three main financial statements are the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) are a set of accounting standards that are widely used in the United States. These principles provide guidelines for how financial transactions should be recorded, classified, and summarized.

Understanding the basics of accounting principles and practices is essential for anyone involved in business. By understanding the accounting equation, double-entry accounting, accrual accounting, the chart of accounts, financial statements, and GAAP, stakeholders can make informed decisions about their business operations. It is important to remember that accounting is not just about numbers; it is about providing relevant and accurate financial information that can be used to make sound business decisions.